The Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill was introduced in the House of Lords in early July and awaits a second reading. The Bill is formed of thirteen parts, including provisions to:
- introduce measures for the protection of the police;
- introduce legislation for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of crime;
- make changes to the policing of protests;
- create new offences for unauthorised encampments as well as amending existing legislation;
- introduce road traffic measures;
- replace the existing out of court disposal framework;
- amend custodial and community sentences;
- amend the youth justice system;
- legislate for secure schools and children’s homes;
- update court and tribunal procedures; and
- introduce measures for managing and rehabilitating offenders.
Protection of the police
The Bill proposes-
-a new duty for a Police Covenant report to be put before Parliament each year;
-amending the offence of assaulting an emergency worker to increase the maximum penalty to 2 years (from 12 months);
-allowing Specials to join the Police Federation; and
-amending road traffic legislation so that trained police drivers are treated differently from regular drivers for the offences of dangerous driving and driving without due care and attention.
Prevention, investigation and prosecution of crime
A new legal duty would be introduced requiring certain agencies to work together to reduce serious violence and require community safety partnerships to consider this issue when formulating and implementing strategies to combat local crime and disorder.
Offensive weapon homicide reviews would be carried out by relevant agencies when the death of an adult involves the use of an offensive weapon.
The Bill would introduce a new statutory framework for the extraction of electronic information from electronic devices. This would relate to the extraction of information for certain purposes in an investigation.
Other provisions proposed under this heading relate to pre-charge bail, sexual offences, criminal damage to memorials, overseas production orders, search warrants, functions of prisoner custody officers, and account freezing in proceeds of crime cases.
One of the most controversial chapters in the Bill is in relation to proposed changes in the way that protests are policed. This includes amending:
- the Public Order Act 1986 to increase the number of circumstances in which the police can impose conditions on protests
- the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 to expand the controlled area around Parliament where protests are banned
- getting rid of the offence of public nuisance and replacing it with one of “intentionally or recklessly causing public nuisance”.
A new offence is suggested of “residing or intending to reside on land without consent in or with a vehicle”. Existing police powers would also be amended to lower the threshold at which the powers in the 1994 Act could be used and allow the police to remove unauthorised encampments.
Road Traffic measures
The Bill sets out several measures, including:
- increase the maximum penalty to life for causing death by dangerous driving, careless driving or while under the influence of drink or drugs;
- introducing a new offence of causing serious injury by careless or inconsiderate driving;
- creating a statutory basis for a charging regime for courses that are offered as an alternative to prosecution for certain road traffic offences;
- providing a statutory basis to charge for vehicle removal, storage and disposal fees where the police have removed it;
- remove the need for a physical licence to be produced when a fixed penalty notice is issued, or at court;
- strengthening the rules about surrendering a licence when disqualified.
Out of court disposals
All out of court disposals would be replaced with a choice of two, diversionary cautions or community cautions (with a provision that conditions could be attached to the cautions).
The provisions of this chapter would:
- introduce a statutory minimum to be introduced for certain specified offences;
- introduce a starting point of a whole life order for premeditated offences of child murder;
- allow judges to impose whole life orders on 18 to 20-year-olds in exceptionally serious circumstances;
- make changes to the minimum review process;
- change how minimum terms are calculated;
- require certain prisoners to serve two thirds o their sentence rather than half (specified violence and sexual offence);
- refer certain prisoners to the Parole Board for release rather than release automatically (if the prisoner is deemed a terrorist threat or a significant threat to the public);
- give the secretary of state a power to change the release test where prisoners are recalled for a fixed term; and
- change the law so that the length of driving disqualifications are extended in line with the new release points for custodial sentences.
The Bill would:
- create a power to allow for attendance at appointments to be required at any stage of a community sentence;
- increase the allowable number of daily curfew hours, and the total length of a curfew;
- allow probation to amend the start or end time of a curfew, or the residence of the offender without prior approval from court;
- provide for pilots of problem-solving courts to take place; and
- create a new duty for probation to consult local and regional stakeholders on the design and delivery of unpaid work.
- amending the test for a custodial remand so that it is more difficult to remand a child;
- introducing a statutory duty for courts to consider the welfare and best interests of a child when making a decision on a remand;
- changing detention and training orders to remove fixed lengths, provide that time on remand or subject to certain bail conditions is time served, ensure an offender benefits from the same amount of early release for all sentences served consecutively;
- changing youth rehabilitation orders to include a standalone tracking requirement, increasing curfew hours and raising the age limit for the education requirement;
- allowing pilots of a tracking requirement as a standalone order and to monitor offenders on high intensity orders; and
- abolish reparation orders.
Other changes put forward in the Bill include the introduction of serious violence reduction orders, changes to the management of sex offenders and terrorist offenders, and permitting the presence of a BSL interpreter in the jury room.
How can we help?
If you need specialist advice in relation to any criminal investigation or prosecution, from the initial investigation through to court proceedings, please get in touch. Call John Howey on 020 7388 1658 or email email@example.com. Let us help.
[Image credit: “Day 165 – West Midlands Police – Arresting suspected offenders” by West Midlands Police is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 ] Read More
The Sentencing Council has recently published new guidelines for judges and magistrates for when they are sentencing offenders who are in breach of a court order. The guidelines provide a clear approach which will mean a tightening up of the way courts deal with offenders who have not complied with a wide range of orders such as suspended sentence orders, community orders, restraining orders and sexual harm prevention orders.
It is the first time there have been comprehensive guidelines setting out a consistent approach for courts to use and they will help ensure that if an offender breaches a court order, they will receive an appropriate penalty.
What breaches are covered by the guideline?
- Breach of a Community Order
- Breach of a Suspended Sentence Order
- Breach of Post Sentence Supervision
- Failing to Surrender to Bail
- Breach of a Protective Order (restraining and non-molestation orders)
- Breach of a Criminal Behaviour Order and Anti-Social Behaviour Order
- Breach of a Sexual Harm Prevention Order and Sexual Offence Prevention Order
- Failing to Comply with Notification Requirement
- Breach of Disqualification from acting as a director
- Breach of Disqualification from keeping an animal
When does the guideline come in to force?
The guideline will come into effect in courts on 1 October 2018.
Is there a change in approach?
It is likely that the courts’ will get tougher when dealing with breaches. Courts are required to follow guidelines and these guidelines closely reflect legislation and define more clearly appropriate court responses to breaches.
For example, in relation to suspended sentence orders, legislation states that they must be activated – i.e. the offender will be sent to prison – in the event of a breach unless it would be unjust to do so. The guideline gives clearer guidance on this consideration, and offenders will now not get opportunities to avoid their sentence being activated. For activation to be considered to be unjust, there would need to be new and exceptional circumstances – not present at the time the order was imposed – that prevented them from complying with the order. This might involve for example the offender taking on caring for a disabled relative which greatly affects their ability to comply with an unpaid work requirement.
The guideline also covers breaches of orders imposed to prevent particular behaviour or protect individuals or groups from it, such as sexual harm prevention orders and restraining orders. The guidelines prompt courts to look at an offender’s motivation and intention in committing a breach to assess the seriousness of the breach. The guidelines also instruct courts to look at any harm caused, and for the first time in a guideline, the risk of harm being caused.
Including a focus on risk of harm for such breaches helps ensure appropriate sentences are imposed where a breach presents a serious risk of harm to the public, without any actual harm needing to have occurred. This could include for example a sex offender who fails to comply with notification requirements with the intention of evading detection in order to commit further offences.
Sentencing Council member Julian Goose said: “Court orders are there to protect individuals and the wider public from particular types of offending or continuing criminal behaviour by offenders. Making sure that offenders comply with court orders is crucial in reinforcing public confidence in sentencing. Where offenders do not comply, the public have a right to expect that this is properly addressed by the courts. We are giving courts clear guidance on what action should be taken against those offenders who ignore court orders so that they are dealt with robustly and consistently.”
Will more people go to prison?
The Sentencing Council conducts research to assess the impact of its guidelines on future sentencing practice. This is a difficult task and the findings are subject to many caveats, however, the following pattern emerges:
Protective orders: ‘In general, the sentencing ranges have been set with current sentencing practice in mind and therefore it is not anticipated that there will be any impact on prison and probation resources in the majority of cases. There are two exceptions which may lead to higher sentences for some breaches of a restraining/non- molestation order.’
Criminal Behaviour Order: ‘In general, the sentencing ranges have been set with current sentencing practice in mind and therefore it is not anticipated that there will be any impact on prison and probation resources in the majority of cases. The exception is for the most serious breach cases that fall in categories A1, A2 and B1, where there has been an extension to the category ranges, and also at the bottom of the distribution where there may actually be a reduction in sentence severity.’
Sexual Harm Prevention Order/SOPO: Insufficient data.
Breach of notification requirements: ‘A review of transcripts of cases has confirmed that current guidance is not considered adequate by sentencers to address offences falling within the top end of seriousness. The new guideline is more prescriptive and as a consequence it is possible that there may be more sentences at the top end of the guideline range.’
Suspended Sentence Orders: ‘…it has not been possible, (and it is not advisable), to calculate any informative or realistic estimate of the guideline on sentencing practice or the subsequent impact on prison or probation services.’
Breach of disqualifications: ‘…any potential impact would be minimal.’
Failing to surrender to bail: ‘The new wording and format of the guideline regarding consecutive sentences is considered to be in line with the existing guideline, and therefore is not anticipated to have an impact on prison or probation resources.’
In our experience sentencing guidelines often do lead to unintended rises in sentence length, possibly due to a lack of understanding, something our advocates are acutely aware of.
How can we help?
If you need further advice in respect of any potential criminal matter please contact John Howey on 020 7388 1658 or email firstname.lastname@example.org